Sunday, June 7, 2020

Granger causality analysis based on chinas inflation analysis - Free Essay Example

Financial sector in the formation of the reasons for inflation has been, and there is no consensus. Keynesian view that the real economy is highly unstable, the labor market is the root of inflation, and thus derive the famous Phillips curve, monetary school believes that inflation is essentially a monetary phenomenon, while the market is essentially stable, no need for government to artificially adjust. The use of macroeconomic policies, inflation, structure, school tried to economic productivity of various departments to explain the long-term trends are inconsistent prices and the resulting inflation. These three schools of thought in theory, to some extent explains the causes of inflation, but can not fully explain the formation mechanism of inflation, and given the corresponding policy recommendations. Inflation is a comprehensive economic phenomenon, rather than single-factor effects. In this paper, econometric methods, the use of ADF model (Augmented Dickey-Fuller test) and the Granger causality test (Granger Causality Tests) model, from the GOP Growth, M1 Growth, Consume Growth, Wage Growth, Exchange Rate these economic indicators Inflation Rate in effect to analyze the causes of inflation. 2. Analysis In the time-series case, the two economic variables X, Y Granger causality between the defined as: if the variable contains the X, Y under the conditions of the past information on the predictive variable Y is superior to solely focus from the Ys past information to forecast Y effect that the variable X helps to explain the future change in the variable Y is considered a variable X is caused by the variable Y Granger causes. Granger causality test is essentially testing whether a variable lag variables other variables could be introduced into the equation. If a variable is subject to the delayed impact of other variables, claimed that they have Granger causality.   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Right and two time series, based on Grangers definition, if a relative value only to predict the past when the past values can be used to improve forecasts. That is, if the past value can statistically improve the forecast is said to cause and effect in the. Granger causality test can not only long-term relationship between the variables tested, but also on the short-term relationship between the variables tested. There is no unit root for the two stationary series, can be defined the following equation:  ¼Ãƒâ€¹Ã¢â‚¬  1 ¼Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ° Test from the causal relationship, namely, the zero hypothesis testing. Original hypothesis; alternative hypothesis. If you accept the original hypothesis, then there is no causal relationship from to; On the contrary, then there exists a causal relationship from to. Granger causality test for a pre-condition that the time series must be stationary, or may be a false returns. Therefore, before carrying out Granger causality test first response to the various indicators of stability of time series to conduct a unit root test (unit root test). ADF tests were used to smooth sequences of various indicators to conduct a unit root test. 3. Empirical Analysis Paper selected 1980-2007 Year Inflation Rate (IR), G OP Growth (GOP), M1 Growth (M1), Consume Growth (CONSUME), Wage Growth (W), Exchange Rate (EX) 6 variables, 28 samples the number of the study. Eviews6.0 calculated using the software. Inflation Rate (IR), GOP Growth (GOP), M1 Growth (M1), Consume Growth (CONSUME), Wage Growth (W), Exchange Rate (EX) 6 variables of the line graph the figure below. Figure 1 3.1 Unit root test In time series analysis, to avoid spurious regression phenomenon, in doing causality analysis, the need for variable ADF test (Augmented Dickey-Fuller test). Test results shown in Table 1: TABLE 1 Unit root test Variable Augmented Dickey-Fuller test statistic Test critical values 1% level 5% level 10% level IR -3.180069 -3.711457 -2.981038 -2.629906 I(0) GOP -3.254578 -3.737853 -2.991878 -2.635542 I(0) M1 -4.337122 -3.711457 -2.981038 -2.629906 I(0) CONSUME -5.318454 -3.711457 -2.981038 -2.629906 I(0) W 0.651459 -3.769597 -3.004861 -2.642242 I(1) D(W) -5.975410 -3.769597 -3.004861 -2.642242 I(0) EX -1.661010 -3.699871 -2.976263 -2.627420 I(1) D(EX) -4.669889 -3.711457 -2.981038 -2.629906 I(0) IR (Inflation Rate), GOP Growth, M1 Growth, C Growth (Consume Growth), the amount of the ADF test at the 5% significance level less than the corresponding critical value, there is no unit root, is smooth. The W Growth (Wage Growth), EX (Exchange Rate) the amount of ADF test at the 5% significance level is greater than the corresponding critical value, there are unit root is not smooth, but the first-order differential sequence of ADF values are less than 5% significance level the critical value, indicating they do not exist unit root, is a first-order stationary 3.2Granger Causality Tests As the W Growth (Wage Growth), EX (Exchange Rate) is a stable order, so DW respectively, said W Growth (Wage Growth) first-order differential, DEX that EX (Exchange Rate) of the first-order differential, and separately GOP, M1, CONSUME, DW, DEX and IR for Granger Causality Tests, test results shown in Table 2 TABLE 2 Granger Causality Tests Null Hypothesis Obs F-Statistic Prob. GOP does not Granger Cause IR 25 3.61448 0.0334 IR does not Granger Cause GOP 1.99679 0.1506 M1 does not Granger Cause IR 25 13.2070 8.E-05 IR does not Granger Cause M1 0.21912 0.8818 CONSUME does not Granger Cause IR 25 0.40692 0.7499 IR does not Granger Cause CONSUME 0.74334 0.5401 DW does not Granger Cause IR 24 2.36992 0.1025 IR does not Granger Cause DW 5.02768 0.0101 DEX does not Granger Cause IR 24 0.95259 0.4375 IR does not Granger Cause DEX 0.81532 0.5030 According to AIC and th e SC minimum principle to determine the optimal lag order is 3, the corresponding results can be seen GOP and the M1 are the reasons for IR, but CONSUME, W, and EX are not the reasons for IR, indicating GOP and the M1 have an impact on inflation. 4. Summary This paper analyzes the Inflation Rate (IR), GOP Growth (GOP), M1 Growth (M1), Consume Growth (CONSUME), Wage Growth (W), Exchange Rate (EX) the relationship between the use of ADF test and Granger causality test empirical analysis of various factors, analysis found that: First, GOP Growth, M1 Growth ahead of inflation and changes in the movement, so GOP Growth, M1 Growth Inflation in China has a sense of Granger causality; but Consume Growth, Wage Growth, Exchange Rate and inflation causal no significant relationship. Secondly, M1 Growth and Inflation Rate changes in the same direction exists between the relationship and M1 Growth impact on inflation there is a certain lag, which shows inflation is essentially a monetary phenomenon.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Temporal Lobes in the Cerebral Cortex

The temporal lobe is one of the four main lobes or regions of the cerebral cortex. It is located in the largest division of the brain known as the forebrain (prosencephalon). As with the frontal,  occipital, and parietal lobes, there is one temporal lobe located in each brain hemisphere. Temporal Lobes The temporal lobes are responsible for sensory processing, auditory perception, language and speech production, and memory storage.The temporal lobes are located in the prosencephalon or forebrain between the occipital and parietal lobes.Important structures within the temporal lobes include the olfactory cortex, the hippocampus, Wernickes Area, and the amygdala.The amygdala controls many autonomic responses to emotional stimulants and is also responsible for memory sorting and storing.Damage to the temporal lobes can result in impaired auditory perception, difficulty understanding and producing language, and memory loss. The temporal lobes play an important role in organizing sensory input, auditory perception, language and speech production, as well as memory association and formation. Structures of the limbic system, including the olfactory cortex, amygdala, and the hippocampus are located within the temporal lobes. Damage to this area of the brain can result in problems with memory, understanding language, and maintaining emotional control. Location The temporal lobes are anterior to the occipital lobes and inferior to the frontal lobes and parietal lobes. A  large deep groove known as the Fissure of Sylvius separates the parietal and temporal lobes. Function The temporal lobes are involved in several functions of the body related to thought and sensory processing, including: Auditory PerceptionMemorySpeechLanguage ComprehensionEmotional ResponseVisual PerceptionFacial Recognition The temporal lobes aid in auditory processing and sound perception in addition to being vital to language comprehension and speech production. Speech and language-related tasks are accomplished by Wernickes Area, which helps to process words and interpret spoken language. Another primary role of the temporal lobes is memory and emotion processing and the most important brain structure involved in this is the amygdala. The amygdala receives sensory information from the thalamus and other areas of the cerebral cortex. Limbic structures of the temporal lobe are responsible for regulating many emotions as well as forming, processing, and classifying memories based on new and existing information. The amygdala, with the help of the hippocampus, aids in memory formation and connects emotions and senses, such as smell and sound, to memories. This mass of cells sorts through memories to determine where they will be stored long-term and also controls many autonomic responses to different stimulants such as the fight or flight response to fear. Damage to the Temporal Lobes Damage to the temporal lobes can present a number of issues. A stroke or seizure that impacts the temporal lobes can result in an inability to understand language or speak properly. An individual may also have difficulty hearing or perceiving sound if they have suffered trauma. Additionally, temporal lobe damage may lead an individual to develop anxiety disorders or aggressive behavior—memory loss and hallucinations sometimes follow. In certain cases, patients even develop a condition called Capgras Delusion,  which is the belief that people, often loved ones, are not who they appear to be.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Smoking Must Be Banned from All Public Places Essay

In this lifetime, all the public seems to be worried about is effects of global warming. Everyone is trying to make the environment safer so that Earth does not combust within the next 50 years. Yes, that is a global crisis, but there is one forming right under the publics’ nose, literally. The effect of second- and third- hand smoke is something that has become a hot topic and put on the back burner until recently. Some states have adopted a law that prevents smoking in places like restaurants and bars, but that isn’t far enough. Banning smoking in all public places will significantly improve the health of innocent bystanders, which is something the public should want to strive for. More than 42,000†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"It is especially toxic for babies still in the womb [and] infants†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Nordqvist). Tar can remain in the lungs one inhaled. Second-hand smoke has almost the same effects as first-hand. It can cause cancers, heart problems, and lung problems if chronic exposure is evident. Third-hand smoke is also something that has come about in the last few years. Third-hand smoke is smoke that can be found on clothes, hair, and in ventilation systems of smoking establishments. In recent years, many states have taken steps forward in banning smoking in public places. Approximately 21 states are 100 percent smoke-free in non-hospitality workplaces, restaurants, and bars (â€Å"†). Although the other 29 states are not 100 percent smoke-free, cities and counties within these states have taken it upon themselves to pass local laws prohibiting smoking in such public areas (â€Å"†). Since some of these laws have been implemented, heart attack hospitalizations fell an average 15 percent, while stroke hospitalizations fell 16 percent and hospitalizations for respiratory disease fell 24 percent (Szabo). 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Integration of Clinical Information Systems

Question: Discuss about the Integration of Clinical Information Systems. Answer: Introduction The hospitality business is profoundly competitive as well as the interaction between the guests and the hotels staff is basic to get positive and valuable guest experiences. The staff of the hotel needs to behave and communicate properly with customers as well as with the staff members of the hotel. The hotel Accor plans to create the education in the work environment and help its representatives in enhancing their capacity to convey and comprehend the desires of their part as well as the guest's requirements. The successful stay of guests at the hotel basically depends upon the way the hotel staff behaves and communicates with its guests and the ambience they create for them. When the guests make their reservation to the hotel, they firstly check out the hotels front-office department, and the housekeeping department. The engineering department must need to be in constant and proper communication with the front-office so that they can provide their guests all the basic facilities a nd services. The main objective of many hotels and restaurants is to avoid showing their guests as to how much work and effort it takes to make it sure that their stay in the hotel is easy, natural and instantaneous. It is necessary that the delivery of different services should appear simple, with no weakness noticeable to the hotels guests. This study includes the situation of one large hotel from the hospitality industry named as Hyatt where the Hotel Hyatt faces a problem situation as there is a huge inter-departmental communication problem among the staff members of the Hotel. Description of the problem Communicating transparently and regularly is the most ideal path for pioneers to keep the fingers on the success of their hotels. The Planning standard division registration, authority group gatherings and all staff discussions may appear like a considerable measure, however, they are extraordinary apparatuses for giving a stage to colleagues for making inquiries and trade thoughts. Customarily, Hyatt Hotels are considered as a chain of upscale hotels giving the top-notch client benefit services, Hyatt Touch is the mark term which is used to depict these sort of services. But now maintaining the Hyatt standards in order to provide the best customer service has become a forefront or a major issue for the hotel as there is a huge problem in the communication between the inter-departments of the Hotel. Here is a situation which the Hotel Hyatt faces a problem situation and this situation completely shows that the Hyatts hotels need an effective inter-departmental communication plan to achieve the smooth service delivery. A guest named as Smith, has heard so much about the Hyatt hotels and after checking out the excellent reviews, he decided to stay for the very first time in the Hyatt hotel just for one night and gave them an opportunity to gain their best business. But completely opposed to the reviews, Smith had the worst experience with the hotel services, such as, when he entered into his room, it was not at all clean and he noticed that the bulbs are on the floor and service trays are there which was used by some previous guests. When Smith asked about this mess to the room service assistant, he got a reply that the room service department was not informed about the guests arrival by the housekeeping manager, and when Smith went to the housekeeping manager, they blamed the hot el managers and this process continued till the engineering department of the Hotel. This scenario clearly shows that there was a lack of inter-departmental communication. Typically, whenever a guest checks-in or book his/her stay in the hotel, a particular room attendant surely gets allotted for the service of the room as well as the attendant have to prepare the room before the arrival of the guests. While cleaning the entire room, the room attendant may notice some issues, such as, unwashed bed-sheets, curtains, and that the room is dirty then he/she must inform the house-keeping department about the issues and ask them to fix it as soon as possible. Since the success of the hotel is totally based on the teamwork, it is completely the obligation of the room attendant to call operators and front desk of the hotel so that the appropriate departments can react and take care of the required services of the guests. The Engineering and Management department has the similar obligations while repairing the guestroom (Agarwal, 2012). But in the case of Smith, it has been noticed that the inter-departmental communication was not at all effective in the hotel. Before the hotel room has been made available to Smith for night stay, the Engineering as well as other departments of the hotel must need to fix all the issues and then they also need to inform the Housekeeping department to finish their duties of making the room clean and tidy for the next guest. Therefore, an effective inter-departmental communication is necessary for the Hyatt hotel to remain in the race of the hotel business. There is a huge increment in inter-departmental communication barriers in affecting the reputation of Hyatt, many other hotels also got effected badly because of the barriers in the inter-departmental communication. The main problem that Hyatts staff members are facing is that the messages aren't passed consequently to the right person at the correct place on correct time. At Hyatt, it has been detected that the workers of Hyatt aren't ready to take steps to improve their inter-departmental communication. Therefore, the expectations of hotel managers are not met at all, which is badly affecting the productivity of the hotel. Because of this problem, misunderstanding and conflicts have arisen among the supervisors and the staff of the Hotel in making appropriate decisions and in provision of the best services to its customers as seen in the case of Smith. The continuance doesn't permit the staff to properly arrange, implement and organize their jobs if the managers of the hotel don't set guidelines and objectives (Budzowski, 2014). Finally, the inter-departmental communication problem in hotel decreased the revenues as well as put negative impacts on Hyatts productivity. The communication is imperative once making the rooms ready before the guests arrival, however, it's not the sole time in which departments of the Hyatt hotel ought to communicate with one another (Dann and Hornsey, 2014). In case of Smith, all the departments of Hyatt ought to stay in good communication relation throughout the stay of Mr. Smith. If there would be an effective inter-departmental communication, Smith might not have faced all such problems which he had to face during his stay at the Hyatt. If there was an effective bonding between the staff of every department, then at the time when Smith had called the front office manager, he/she might have called the respective departments for the cleaning of Smiths room. If the staff members of other departments have responded positively to the call of the front office manager and took it as their responsibility to make the right person to do the right job to provide best services to their guests (Ivanov, Kuzyk and Simachev, 2012). It ought to be noted that it's not simply the hotel operator which has the responsibility for the guests requests for different services, however, everybody within the Front workplace ought to be trained to apprise the varied departments in case of a problem. At Hyatt, the team members of different departments did not take seriously their planning of tasks, thus, leading to an ineffective, and less productive hospitality services to its customers. Therefore, updated information about tasks and services were not usually distributed. On the off chance, there has been a lack of care of guests, as guests ask for higher remuneration, such as, free of cost dinners, highly upgraded services, etc., lack of which diminishes the revenue and productivity of the hotel (Molina, Saura and Velazquez, 2011). No individual department of the Hyatt hotel can work in detachment. The housekeeping office, is the only department at the Hyatt which is working towards fulfilling the requirements of the visitors, and every other department is reliant on others for data and administrations to be proficient. Inside the rooms division, housekeeping department fundamentally facilitates the maintenance as well as the front-office department among all co-appointment ass ociations at the Hotel. The Front-office, housekeeping, and maintenance department of the hotel must need proper inter-departmental communication as all these departments rely upon these three divisions to make a good image of the hotel and to earn good review from the customers (Pandya, 2010). To guarantee the effective staying of visitors, both housekeeping as well as the front-office department need to educate the staff members about the changes in the rooms and also about the current status of the rooms. Knowing whether a room is involved, empty, on change, out on request, under repair, or comparative for appropriate room administration (Pruvli and Alas, 2014). But at Hyatt not even a single department tries to co-operate with each other and make efforts to understand the needs of the customers as well as the other departments of the hotel. Mastering the specialty of communication in the hotel industry goes beyond the words and the correct conduit for acknowledging successful communication is essential in every hospitality industry. Overall the hospitality areas affect an approximate of 1.86 million workers of hotel industry, 4.9 million rooms of guests, and 62.2 percent of common people associated with the hotel industry, therefore, an effective inter-departmental communication is very necessary for the hotel (Rutherford, 2011). The uninterrupted, unified communication with the hotel is considered as the loss of productivity as well as the loss of revenues of the hotel Hyatt. An effective communication makes an image of the hotel and best words are used by the visitors to share the reputable updates of the hotel through social networking sites, TripAdvisor, and all other digital media sources. A negative review of the hotel effects almost thirty new customers of the hotel. Hyatt Hotel continues to show the creation as well as the delivery of visitor experiences, especially when talked about the major aspects of technology, for example, facilities available in the rooms, lobby rooms, and high tech rooms (Schwaner, 2011). But to confirm that the effective inter-departmental communication provides the complete satisfaction to the visitors or the guests of the hotel, safety of guests property and guests demographics is essential. The hotel client service items have the property of incorporating, which is given by various offices and staff. Inn benefit quality is great or terrible that relies only upon the level of participation and coordination between the various divisions and staff. Numerous chiefs are worried with the performance of the staff members of their departments, instead of co-operation with different divisions, the relating obstruction will be in the long run surge the visitors (Shuaib and Tiwana, 2013). Enhancing the cross-departmental collaboration to make changes as these changes prof oundly impact the way of life of the Hotel. Individuals will feel awkward being compelled to work with colleagues as they have possessed to stay away from previously. How to enhance the Communication Begin the conversation: At Hyatt, managers need to conduct a weekly leadership conference with department chiefs. Basically for uniting everybody and opening the lines for effective communication. Shared objectives and relational abilities are also needed to be addressed. Figure out what data are required: To facilitate the inter-departmental dialogs with respect to the sort of data is required as what is not being precisely or auspicious shared, and how to enhance this (Stymne, 2011). Discuss how to impart: Are inter-departmental desires to be shared by means of email, and private correspondence, verbally? Who ought to be replicated and when? What is the normal follow-up? Ask these inquiries and share desires. Broadly educate: Improved understanding, through employment pivot of each other's obligations and exercises will prompt an energy about how offices cooperate and influence each other. This prompts better correspondence. Two-way digital radios: Two-way digital radio applications as well as tools are designed to significantly improve the business and enhance the communication skills among the staff members. These digital radios help Hyatt to create the best guests experience by providing communication solutions to the employees as with these radios the staff members can easily communicate with each other effectively from anyplace. Focus on the speed and time of fast response is important when it comes to customer satisfaction and security. The Portable Radio enables the employees in providing excellence to their roles in the hotel, as well as its impact on visitors is also positive (Sylvie, 2013). The capability to easily share information with a speech or include the text so sharply satisfying the request involves only a few steps. The collaboration between the communication staff is strong, thus improving the productivity as well as the satisfaction level of the guests. By leading through the follow ing methods, i.e., digital radio and communication applications to further serve the hospitality sector for cutting the modern technology and style. In addition to the hospitality, these are also used in radio manufacturing, transport and the logistics, education, along with the public security sectors (Tellis, 2015). The front-office is assumed as a crucial part in conveying accommodation to the visitors. It sets the phase for a wonderful or an unsavory visit. Visitors, frequently in a new setting and on edge to continue with their business or excursion arrangements, are anxious to take in as to who, what, when, where, and how are their new conditions. These workers expect to have their chief on the beat of the association and the group. Powerful Inter-departmental Communications The messages for promoting and dealing division must be handed-off totally, precisely, and rapidly. The switchboard administrator is a crucial connection in correspondence between the imminent customer and a sales representative in the promoting and deals division (Tewari, 2012). The front-office director ought to educate all the new faculty of the front-office in the promoting and deals office and about what every individual's occupation involves. The front-office representatives ought to know as to how to articulate the names of all showcasing and deals workers. To help the front-office staff to get comfortable with every one of these individuals, administrators ought to indicate the new representatives photos to the office executives and bosses. The demands for administration at gatherings, courses, dinners, and so forth are needed to be regularly made at the front-office (Wellington, 2010). The meal administrator, a man who is in-charge of fulfilling the subtle elements of admini stration for a feast or extraordinary occasions, or deals relate, a man who books the visitor's necessities for dinners and other uncommon occasions, may be occupied with another capacity. Each division ought to build up a rundown of the sort of data they feel is missing from different offices. This ought to have to-know, not pleasant to-know, data. Properly directed group building can drastically enhance how well office heads function with each other. Typically, this requires the utilization of an outside expert with experience in getting the senior directors to blend as a group. The standard working techniques ought to incorporate strides that blueprint as to when and how the data ought to stream between the offices. Rotating representatives through different divisions can help them become more acquainted with their associates and pick up a fuller comprehension of what they do (Wang, Tian and Zhang, 2012). This will give representatives a more adjusted point of view of how the fun ction of the association is led and the significance of sharing data between offices. The supervisors of Hyatt need to spend the biggest bit of their time in verbal or composed communications with their representatives or outside gatherings. The other staffs part imparts among themselves, and in addition to their chiefs, bleeding edge workers and providers, et cetera, to give and get the data they have to play out their employments. Conclusion The powerful and effective inter-departmental communication guarantees that all different departments rely on the similar page as work circumstances change at the hotel. One office may roll out an improvement that influences the other division. If the primary department of the hotel doesn't convey or communicate properly with other the departments, there must be seen a disarray, dissatisfaction and outrage in the services offered by the hotel. Without the successful inter-departmental communication, the Hyatt hotel can wind-up in confusions, with an absence of inspiration among the representatives and the absence of respect as well as trust between the inter-departments. It has also been concluded that effective communication is the most vital and the most utilized part of the tourism as well as the hospitality industry. References Agarwal, D. (2012). The Importance of Communication within Organizations: A Research on Two Hotels in Uttarakhand.IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 3(2), pp.40-49. Budzowski, B. (2014).Human resource management applied research reports. 1st ed. [Beaver Falls, Pa.]: [Geneva College]. Dann, D. and Hornsey, T. (2014). Towards a theory of interdepartmental conflict in hotels.International Journal of Hospitality Management, 5(1), pp.23-28. Ivanov, D., Kuzyk, M. and Simachev, Y. (2012). Fostering Innovation Performance of Russian Manufacturing Enterprises: New Opportunities and Limitations.Foresight-Russia, 6(2), pp.18-41. Molina, M., Saura, I. and Velazquez, B. (2011). Information and communication technologies in rural hotels.International Journal of Sustainable Economy, 2(1), p.1. Pandya, S. (2010). Inter-departmental cooperation needs education.Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, (3). Pruvli, E. and Alas, R. (2014). The Perceived Differences in Interdepartmental Communication Regarding Organisational Formalisation: a Case Study of an International Company.Studia Commercialia Bratislavensia, 7(26). Rutherford, D. (2011).Hotel management and operations. 1st ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Schwaner, S. (2011). Improving Interdepartmental Communication Through the Role of Nurse Liaison.Journal of Radiology Nursing, 30(2), pp.89-90. Shuaib, W. and Tiwana, M. (2013). Interdepartmental communication.Irish Journal of Medical Science, 183(1), pp.151-152. Stymne, B. (2011). Interdepartmental Communication and Intraorganizational Strain.Acta Sociologica, 11(1-2), pp.82-100. Sylvie, G. (2013). Departmental Influences on Interdepartmental Cooperation in Daily Newspapers.Journalism Mass Communication Quarterly, 73(1), pp.230-241. Tellis, W. (2015).Improving interdepartmental communication through the integration of clinical information systems and the application of mobile computing technology. 1st ed. Tewari, J. (2012).Hotel front office. 1st ed. New Dehli: Oxford University Press. Wang, Y., Tian, S. and Zhang, C. (2012). Study of Comprehensive Assessment of Traffic Safety and Decision-Making Support System Based on the Inter-Departmental Data Requirements.International Journal of Computer and Communication Engineering, pp.472-474. Wellington, P. (2010).Effective customer care. 1st ed. London: Kogan Page.

Monday, April 20, 2020

Who is to blame for the death of Romeo and Juliet Discuss. Essay Example

Who is to blame for the death of Romeo and Juliet? Discuss. Paper For many years people have argued and discussed the ways in which different characters may be regarded to contribute towards the death of Romeo and Juliet. There may be many reasons for the death of these two young lovers and in this essay I am going to discuss the characters that may be considered to play a part in the tragedy. There are a number of characters in the play that participate and contribute to the tragic events of the play. The motivation of each character, along with the involvement placed in the play, contributes to our thoughts and provides a definite answer in reaching a conclusion. We soon come to relate with the characters and see how each of them is connected to the lovers death. Different aspects and fate combine to cause the death of these two star crossed lovers. This particular tragedy is about two people who died for one anothers love. Shakespeare wrote this play going against family traditions at the time, and wrote about two people who married each other out of love. Conversely, the two lovers had not thought about the consequences and as a result, they both ended up dying tragically. We will write a custom essay sample on Who is to blame for the death of Romeo and Juliet? Discuss. specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Who is to blame for the death of Romeo and Juliet? Discuss. specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Who is to blame for the death of Romeo and Juliet? Discuss. specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Most of the characters fall in love at first sight; Romeo and Juliet, spoiling for a brawling fight; Mercution and Tybalt. Old Montague and Capulet act like adolescents in their continuing feud with one another, even getting involved in the fighting. Old Capulet orders for his lady to hand him a sword as Montague defiantly says, Thou villain Capulet! Hold me not. The Capulets and Montagues have used their swords dishonourably by fighting against each other and staining the swords with the blood of neighbours. The nurse acts more like Juliets excitable younger sister than a responsible adult. Only the prince and Benvolio, and later on Friar Laurence, show any sense of responsibility in rationalising and relaxing in certain circumstances. The prologue suggest that fate is to blame for Romeo and Juliet being star crossed lovers; being born into the feuding families, but we cannot blame fate when there are people who will not stop fighting with each other. Some people consider us to decide our own fate and these two characters fight with their own free will. Furthermore, Shakespeare has created a feuding society in Verona, between the Capulets and Montagues; these two houses of society are to blame for the death to a large extent. Even before the scenes, the reader can see that the two households hated one another from the prologue in which the ancient grudge is referred to. Although these two families brawl with each other, no rational suggestion is made in order to stop them. Prince Escalus, who is in charge of what happens in Verona, could be considered blameworthy for the death, as he is unable to stop it. He is there to highlight and emphasise upon the political points in life, such as peace. It is only at the end that he says that he should have been firmer, and I, for winking at your discords too, have lost a brace of kinsmen. All are punished. but it is the death of the lovers not his authority that reconciles the families. Along with the Montagues, the Capulet household are responsible for maintaining the feud. Each family have authority over their household to argue with each other. Not either of them chose to stop the quarrelling. During the beginning of the play, Lord Capulet is eager to get involved in the fighting, and Lady Capulet seeks revenge on the Montagues for the death of Tybalt. She demands For blood of ours shed blood of Montague. This shows a lack of tolerance, as they are not prepared to hear the whole story as they also lack in the basic qualities of civilisation, We will have vengeance for it, fear not. The Capulets are also to blame for the deaths as they denied the wishes of Juliet and never listened to her opinions. Unlike Lord and Lady Montague who are concerned about Romeo, Lady Capulet is a cold, unsympathetic mother, and Lord Capulet is a tyrannical figure that warns Juliet that he will drag her on a hurdle thither if she thinks to defy his orders. This is seen when she refuses to marry Paris. Juliet has no one to turn to therefore must to rely on the nurse. It is shown that wealth over rides love in the Capulet way of life. Lord and Lady Capulet were partly responsible for keeping the feud going. Lord and Lady Montague like the Capulets, were also responsible for keeping the feud going. If they had been more understanding, Romeo would not have felt he had to keep secrets from them. They had authority over their household, and could have stopped the quarrelling if they wanted to. They should have paid more attention to Juliets wishes and listened to her opinions. They were too hard on her when she refused to marry Paris. The Nurse plays a critical role in Romeo and Juliet. Her relationship with major characters and her part in the secretive romance of the two lovers causes the plays action to move quickly and in a powerful way. The Nurse acts as Shakespeares pawn to guide the events of the play in a dramatic manner. The nurse has an important role in Juliets life. She is almost a mother to her who advises her about her relationship with Romeo. However, she can often behave irresponsibly throughout the play. She influences Juliet and enables her to meet with Romeo in secrecy. She understands how little love her mother gives and encourages her to go out and have fun. Go, girl, seek happy nights to happy days. The nurse is a simple woman, genuinely fond of Juliet with a bawdy sense of humour. She starts off as an amusing character, but as the play progresses and finally finishes in a tragic scene, everyone questions her part in the misfortune. The Nurse is an accomplice alongside Friar Laurence in bringing the lovers together. The Nurse is immersed in Juliets affairs and strives to help with her plans. The Nurses desire is simply to keep fourteen-year-old Juliet content. Her obstacle is her sense of duty to Lord and Lady Capulet, though this never seems to deter her actions. Unlike Friar Laurence, the nurse doesnt warn Juliet of the consequences when defying her parents and meeting Romeo in secret. Her only motive to get involved is due to her excitement and understanding of the meaning to Juliet. She doesnt really know how much Juliet really loves Romeo as she only praises either Paris or Romeo when it is the right time. She praises Paris in the beginning of the play by and then admires Romeo, by describing his physical attributes, though his face be better that any mans, yet his legs excels all mens, but then approves of Paris when it is time for the wedding. She describes Romeo as a dishcloth compared to Paris when she said that Romeo could not be compared to any other man. She contradicts her opinions. After Tybalts death, the Nurse becomes less sympathetic and later when Capulet orders Juliet to marry Paris; she defends Juliet at first but later pragmatically suggests that Paris would not be so bad after all. When the Nurse suggests that Juliet should forget about Romeo and marries Paris, she loses Juliets trust and confidence. Juliet decides to seek the help of Friar Laurence; thereafter she no longer involves the Nurse in her secret plans. Friar Laurence is a well-intentioned man who advises Romeo to be more cautious and sensible about the decisions he makes. He knows that Romeo and Juliets love will cause trouble and advises them Wisely and slow: they stumble that run fast His premonition violent delight have violent ends is proved well founded. He advises the couple to be wary and to pace themselves, but this is not executed in a practical way. . He feels that Romeo is very hasty in his decisions, having been so preoccupied with Rosaline, and states, Young mens love then lies, Not truly in their hearts, but in their eyes. He often contradicts himself, as he does not support his point with a valid motive; he just pushes their haste. The friar is taking the lead and is dominant over Juliet as he encourages her to deceive her parents. Be strong and prosperous in this resolve. The friar advises Juliet about the poison and soon becomes involved in the scenario. Her parents are also unaware of this situation. He is a holy man and should have respected the Capulets wishes and yet he ignores that image and want love to blossom in the eyes of Romeo and Juliet. He hopes that it will reconcile the families, For this alliance may so happy prove, to turn your households rancour to pure love. It is ironic as it is the lovers death, which brings about this outcome. When the wedding ceremony between Romeo and Juliet takes place the Friar still believes that Romeo and Juliet are merely infatuated with each other and are not truly in love, but he agrees to marry them anyway. He does this because he still hopes that he could help bring their feuding families together. Friar Laurences sense of duty here identifies him as the peacemaker of the play. Ironically, his intentions were never truly fulfilled because the circumstances surrounding the marriage made it almost impossible for peace to occur. It is important to remember that the Friars impetus for all his actions in the play are initially to bring peace, and secondly to bring happiness to Romeo and Juliet. The friar could also be accused of being responsible for their death as he occasionally acted irresponsibly. With good intensions he sends Romeo to Mantua, gives Juliet a powerful drug and lies to Paris and Juliets family. When Juliet arises from her slumber, the friar flees, as he cannot face the tragedy of Romeos death, despite being accountable for the failed plan. This is a time of Unhappy fortune as things did not go as intended. When Paris is asks the friar to preside over his wedding to Juliet the next day. This causes great conflict for the Friar, because he knows the whole story, and he is very relieved to see Juliet appear at his chamber. After Paris leaves, Juliet begs the Friar to help her in her predicament. As a religious man, the Friar is also looking for a way to avoid doubly marrying Juliet, so he helps her plan her death. This was the final decision made by the friar. He did not think to look at other solutions, such as maybe stalling the wedding and proceed with th e ceremony later on. He acted hastily without thinking and contributed towards the death of the two lovers. Romeo and Juliet, being the protagonists of the play, contribute to the tragic events. They are equally to blame for their own death. Romeo shows a particular characteristic consisting of intense, passionate and impulsive behaviour throughout the play. He is engrossed by his emotions from his first appearance when he is sighing for Rosalind to his last when he kills himself for Juliet. He blames fate for his misfortune when things go wrong, most notably after killing Tybalt. O, I am fortunes fool! In support of Romeos belief that fate is to blame for everything, the prologue refers to the start crossed lovers and their death markd love, suggested that Romeo and Juliet were born to die tragically and nothing could have prevented it. Such as Romeos impulsive, passionate nature that, not only does he fall in love at first sight, he does not think about his actions. Throughout the whole play, the theme of haste and acting before you think is reiterated. Romeo falls into love too quickly and acts too hastily. He does not think about what might happen as a result of this speed of life as he does not think things through. At the beginning of the play, we first see war; and now we hear about love, as Benvolio describes the behaviour of his infatuated friend. Romeo is up before dawn, walking alone in the woods and weeping; when the sun rises, he hurries home and locks himself from the outside world. These are the early symptoms of unrequited love, although neither Benvolio nor Romeos parents appear to recognise this. We wait for Romeo to show us the extent of his love-sickness. He is miserable, however he enjoys his misery. What matters to Romeo is the emotion that he calls love. It makes him happy and at the same time, makes him sad. He tries to express these two conflicting states in a series of witty paradoxes- phrases, which seem absurd. These are also an ominous, foreboding sign, as they are ironic and connect with Juliets death, when she takes the drug; still-waking sleep. During the balcony scene, and then after his wedding night he doesnt give any thought to what Juliets family think. He would rather they find out and his life were better ended by their fate. Better to love and die than die without love; than death prorogued, wanting of thy love. This is ironic as Romeo did die for his love and ended this relationship with Juliet by departing with her through committing suicide out of love. Their engagement interprets a situation happening too quickly. Romeo shows significant queries about the sudden love between them, so thrive my soul-. He shows us that he hopes his soul will survive but in the end, we can see that it doesnt, but dies out along with his love for Juliet. When Friar Laurence offers the couple advice, wisely and slow, Romeo takes no notice. His emotions overcome him and he kills Tybalt, a disastrous action, which results in his banishment. He tries to avoid getting into a fight with Tybalt, proving that he is a powerful, yet resistive character, Doth much excuse the appertaining rage to such a greeting. However, the results draw nearer to a death. He did try to prevent the fights happening on the streets and was considerate about the people of Verona, forbid this bandying in Verona streets. Then, instead of facing upto his actions, Romeo falls into despair and wants to kill himself. He mistakes the sentence of banishment. He feels that this sentence is an easier punishment that death. He does not want to live without Verona walls. Similarly, Romeo is contributing to his own ending. He looks at banishment as death and feels he is married to death and disruption. At the end of the play, he comes into contact with death. Finally, if Romeo had waited a few seconds longer, before drinking the poison, he would have seen Juliet wake up, but, true to his character, he doesnt wait and tragically, this results in both his and Juliets death. I feel that if Romeo should not have been so quick thinking and taken into consideration what the outcome may have been and how each of the other characters felt about certain situations. He should have listened to friar Laurences guidance and remained as he was without marrying Juliet. On the other hand, Mercutios death was uncalled for and Romeo did not have to retaliate towards the Capulets household. For a moment, Romeo forgot about his new bride and retrieves his sword to attack her cousin in an act of vengeance for the death of Mercutio. Prince Escalus hears of the sequence of events from Benvolio and promises to strict justice. He lets Romeo hence in haste. This must be done, or all civil law will break down, and a state of anarchy will result; mercy but murders, pardoning those who kill. Due to the lack of responsibility and irrational thinking, Romeo rushed into his decisions and killed Tybalt out of reprisal. Had he thought about his actions, he would had stayed in Verona, prevented Juliet from drinking the drug; made by Friar Laurence, and be alive on this present day, living happily with his wife Juliet. They two families may have reconsidered and put away their differences. Committing suicide is Romeos final and most profound act in his pursuit of Juliet. On reflection, Juliets action and way of thinking also contributed towards to hers and Romeos death. Unlike Romeo, Juliet changes and progressively matures in the play. When she first appears in the play, she is obedient to her mother. However, once she falls in love with Romeo, she becomes more organised, thinks independently and soon defies her parents. As a result of this, she felt unaided and was left to seek advice from other characters, such as friar Laurence. After the Nurse leaves she says, Ancient damnation! O most wicked fiend, and then goes off alone to talk to the Friar. Lady Capulet, Juliets biological mother only tells her what to do, and has never been personally close with Juliet. When Juliet comes of age to get married, Lady Capulet wants her to marry Paris, and does not care how Juliet feels about it. Juliet tries to talk to her mother about it, and tell her that she does not want to marry Paris, but Lord Capulet walks in and angrily tells her that she will go and marry Paris even if he has to drag her there. Juliet again pleads with her mother to delay the marriage even for a week, but Lady Capulet only responds with, Talk not to me, for Ill not speak a word. Do as thou wilt, for I have done with thee. Later on in the play Juliet finally gets the confidence to stand up against her parents, when they tell her that she will be marrying Paris. Juliet tells her mother, I will not marry yet, and when I do I swear, it shall be Romeo, whom you know I hate, Rather than Paris. These are news indeed! A couple days prior to this, Juliet would not have had the confidence and maturity to speak up against her parents wishes. For example, in Act I, scene 3 Lady Capulet asks Juliet if she has thought of marriage, and when Juliet says no, Lady Capulet says, Well, think of marriage now. Juliet does not argue at all, and tells her mother she will do what she orders. If she had listened to her parents, the death could have been prevented and instead of seeking advice from friar Laurence, Juliet would have married Paris. Verona is a patriarchal city, which means that fathers hold absolute power over their daughters. They may give them to whomever they choose, and feel deeply insulted if their daughters dare to choose otherwise. Juliet chose to differ with her father and disobeyed his wish to marry Paris. One might imply that if she has married Paris, her father would not have cruelly commented on her, calling her a green-sickness carrion and tallow face. If Capulet had listened to his daughter, she would not have been ungrateful. Unlike the situation with Juliets parents, her behaviour towards Romeo equally contributes to the events leading upto her own, as well as Romeos death. Like Romeo, Juliet was too swift into rushing into marriage. She was already partly married to Paris at the time of the ball, and until then, had been happy with her parents choice. She says tell my lord and father, madam, I will not marry yet. She knows that this secret marriage with Romeo will upset her parents to a further point, my only love sprung from my only hate but she still continues with the marriage in secret. If Juliet had not been so fickle as to fall in love with Romeo on the night of the masquerade, they both may still have kept their lives. Upon marrying Romeo, Juliet is quite joyous and believes her troubles are over; however, her hasty decision actually becomes the beginning of many troubles to come. Juliet is different from Romeo in the fact that she does not blame fate for the things that go wrong, she blames her birth as we here in these rhyming couplets Prodigious birth of love is to me, that I must love a loathed enemy. There are many important points in the play, where I believe fate influenced certain people to make certain choices which affect the chain of events leading to Romeo and Juliets deaths. Unlike the intentions of the other characters in the play, it can also be believed that the tragedy was not the fault of any one individual but happened because of bad luck. It was fate that Romeo and Juliet met and fell in love, and was a misfortune that the letter, which could have saved them, didnt reach Romeo in time. Fate seemed to control both of the lovers lives and force them together, becoming the ultimate controlling power in this play even if it is not recognised however in the prologue there is a chosen identity of starts a pair star-crossed lovers. A large part of the beliefs for both Romeo and Juliet involved fate, they believed in the stars and that their actions were not always there own, Romeo for example says some consequence yet hanging in the starsby some vile forfeit of untimely death. But hath the steerage over my course direct sail. He is simply saying to his friends he had a dream, which lead him to believe that he will die young because of something in the stars, something that will happen. The only instance of fate managed to direct Romeo into its web like a spider. Conversely, Romeo is continually in control of his own actions, yet he blames fate through astrological imagery. As he drinks his potion he blames fate, but he is the one who looks for the apothecary, and makes the description of what kind of poison he wants. An example of one of the characters from the play referring to fate is when Mercutio attempts to make Romeo go to the Capulet dance. Romeo eventually agrees, but he still feels uneasy: I fear, too early: for my mind misgives Some consequence yet hanging in the stars Shall bitterly begin his fearful date This reference to the play shows that Romeo never felt happy with the idea of going to the Capulet party in the first place. If he had trusted his instincts and refused to go, the deaths of the two lovers may have been averted. By including these foreboding lines, Shakespeare suggests to the audience that the ultimate destiny of Romeo and Juliet was, in fact, fated. Friar Lawrence refers to fate when he is told that Romeo did not receive his vitally important letter. Unhappy fortune! By my brotherhood, the letter was not nice but full of charge. This quotation displays the worry of the Friar as he realises the disastrous consequences that could unfold if Romeo does not receive his letter in time. Shakespeare could have phrased this sentence differently to place the blame upon the messenger, but instead he expresses it as though it was the fault of fortune. On the other hand, an argument can be made that the conclusion of the play may have been more tragic if Romeo and Juliet had of survived and lived depressed, but without a doubt, either way, the Friar would have been involved. Extract the Friar from the story of Romeo and Juliet, and one may find that there would not have even been a story. The Friar is an extremely important character. In conclusion I feel that each of the main characters contributed towards the tragedy consisting of Romeo and Juliets death. The hasty marriage, wrongful use of the potion, failure to send the letter, and selfishness of the Friar are the causes for the deaths that occurred in the play. In spite of the many coincidences and references to heaven and stars, Romeo and Juliet however, is not totally a tragedy of fate. Each character has his/her freewill and is responsible for his/her actions. The substantial events that inspire the conclusion of Romeo and Juliet are; the Capulet ball, the quarrel experienced by Tybalt and Romeo, and Friar Johns plague. The Capulet ball influences the ending of the play by Romeos invitation at the ball, which creates the meeting of Romeo and Juliet. The ball also gives birth to Tybalts anger and causes his challenge. The challenge causes the banishment of Romeo, which produces much grieving by Juliet and Romeo. Since Friar John did not deliver the letter, Romeo thinks that Juliet is dead, sacrifices himself. Juliet seeing that Romeo is dead, slays herself also. It could be said that fate has no part at all in the Romeo and Juliet play, that it all happened of its own accord, and this could be possible. Personally, I think that too many things would have had to happen consequentially for it to all happen by chance I still believe that Shakespeare was still hinting at the prospect of justice; that wrong doings will be punished in some way or other. Basically, I think that Romeo found true love, and paid the price for trying to get everything he wanted. He was initially put into a very difficult situation, from which an unfortunate chain of events couldnt be stopped from arising. From my essay I can conclude that from the many references to stars and from the consequential sequence of events, that I thoroughly believe that Shakespeare intended to clearly state that fate had a definite part in the deaths of Romeo and Juliet. The tragedy of Romeo and Juliet should be designated as the failure of human responsibility or human error rather than fate. Who should be blamed for this tragedy may remain long controversial, but the story of the two star-crossed lovers will remain timeless in the world of literature. For never was a story of more woe, than this of Juliet and her Romeo

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Free Essays on Supermax Prisons

From the beginning of the prison system to today’s modern times there has been many changes and advancements in how criminals are housed. The only thing that hasn’t changed is the types of offenders that exist inside. It has been said that there are two types of offenders. The first type is the lesser violent and non-aggressive inmates that cooperate with the Correctional Officers and other personnel in charge. They are usually housed together at night and work together during the day. Typically, the inmates are able to remain civil with each other and are able to be mixed together. The other types are the more seriously violent criminals. They are usually confined in separate areas of the prison away from the other less violent criminals or are taken to a more secured prison called the â€Å"Supermax† prison. â€Å"Supermax† prisons, also known as Super-maximum security prisons, are places intended to house offenders that terrorize the safety of the public, prison personnel, and other less violent inmates. They can be located in separated units in regular federal prisons or isolated by themselves away from communities. There are approximately 32 to 42 states that currently have supermax prisons in operation and for the other states the do not they transfer their inmates to these prisons (Briggs). The theory behind super-max prisons is that total separation from the world will bring about behavioral change. â€Å"Control units subject inmates to extremes of isolation and control on the premise that they are too dangerous to be housed in â€Å"general population†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (BSOS). The characteristics of the typical inmate include severe mental illness, disruptiveness, abusiveness, extreme violence, uncooperativeness, prone to escaping or attempt to escape often, and those who have serious behavior problems (Anderson). The prisoners themselves live in individual cells and remain there for ... Free Essays on Supermax Prisons Free Essays on Supermax Prisons From the beginning of the prison system to today’s modern times there has been many changes and advancements in how criminals are housed. The only thing that hasn’t changed is the types of offenders that exist inside. It has been said that there are two types of offenders. The first type is the lesser violent and non-aggressive inmates that cooperate with the Correctional Officers and other personnel in charge. They are usually housed together at night and work together during the day. Typically, the inmates are able to remain civil with each other and are able to be mixed together. The other types are the more seriously violent criminals. They are usually confined in separate areas of the prison away from the other less violent criminals or are taken to a more secured prison called the â€Å"Supermax† prison. â€Å"Supermax† prisons, also known as Super-maximum security prisons, are places intended to house offenders that terrorize the safety of the public, prison personnel, and other less violent inmates. They can be located in separated units in regular federal prisons or isolated by themselves away from communities. There are approximately 32 to 42 states that currently have supermax prisons in operation and for the other states the do not they transfer their inmates to these prisons (Briggs). The theory behind super-max prisons is that total separation from the world will bring about behavioral change. â€Å"Control units subject inmates to extremes of isolation and control on the premise that they are too dangerous to be housed in â€Å"general population†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (BSOS). The characteristics of the typical inmate include severe mental illness, disruptiveness, abusiveness, extreme violence, uncooperativeness, prone to escaping or attempt to escape often, and those who have serious behavior problems (Anderson). The prisoners themselves live in individual cells and remain there for ...

Friday, February 28, 2020

Financial Statements Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Financial Statements - Essay Example While the financial statements will provide the overall financial health of the company, SAC board will also be warned of relying solely on the financial statements as the basis for their future decisions. The memo will contain a list of inherent weaknesses that financial statements have in them. a. Income statement - The income statement describes the company’s revenues and expenses along with the resulting net profit or loss over a period of time. Revenues are those that the company earned through the sale of products or services to customers, or any other form of income that accrues to the company due to its business activities. On the other hand, expenses are those resources that the company has to spend to produce the revenues. The net result is either a net income or a net loss. If revenues exceed expenses, it is a net income. If expenses exceed revenues, it is a net loss. These information are all reflected in the income statement of the company. b. Balance sheet – The balance sheet is a financial statement that describes the company’s financial position at a given time. Its three main components are the assets group, the liabilities group, and the owner’s equity section. The assets are the resources of the company that are being used to produce the goods and services the company sells to its customers. The liabilities and the owner’s equity, on the other hand, are the means by which assets are financed and acquired for the company. Liabilities are what the company owes its creditors, while equity is what the company owes its owners or stockholders. A company’s total assets are equal to all its liabilities and owner’s equity. c. Statement of owner’s equity – The statement of owner’s equity is also known as the statement of retained earnings. (Internet Center for Management and Business Administration, Inc., 2010) This statement shows changes in the owner’s equity, resulting from the operations